Urogenital cancers are varied, since they include tumors of the kidney and bladder, and, in men, of the prostate and testicle. Urogenital cancers differ widely. Treatment strategies are adapted to each patient and determined via a multidisciplinary consultation meeting.
Prostate cancer is the most frequent of these cancers, It occurs in men most frequently after the age of 65, but mortality rates are low, and patients often recover or keep it under control as a chronic disease over the long term. Prostate cancer is suspected when there is an increase in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood, and is then diagnosed via additional tests, namely biopsies and MRIs. These elements, along with a clinical examination, also enable the stage and aggressiveness of the tumor to be clarified. According to these criteria, the intensity of symptoms, the general state of health and age, the patient may be offered several different options, from basic monitoring to a curative treatment through surgery, radiotherapy and/or hormone therapy. Chemotherapy is indicated in advanced and/or metastatic forms. Sometimes there may be a choice from among the various treatments, and the patient’s preferences are taken into consideration.
Testicular Cancer is most frequent in young adults aged between 20 and 30. About 96% of patients make a full recovery. The patient should consult a physician after the appearance of swelling or an increase in volume of one of the testicles. The physician performs a manual exam of the testicles, an ultrasound and a search for blood markers. Surgical removal of the affected testicle is the initial treatment. Before this procedure, as a precaution the patient will be asked to give a semen sample to be stored in a “bank” after freezing. Other therapies may be used to complete the treatment plan, including chemotherapy and even radiotherapy, or surgery of abdominal-pelvic masses or remaining lymph nodes.
Kidney Cancer (around 10,500 cases per year) affects twice as many men as women, and most frequently after the age of 65. It is sometimes diagnosed by chance, revealed by an imaging test carried out for a different reason. The physician will establish the diagnosis after a clinical exam and abdominal scan. Treatments include surgery and chemotherapy. There are familial forms of kidney cancer; a genetic analysis is therefore often carried out when the disease is diagnosed in a patient aged 30 or 40. If a hereditary predisposition is found, the other members of the family may be closely monitored.
Bladder Cancer is linked mainly to smoking and to exposure to some toxic products used in industry. It affects twice as many men as women, mostly over the age of 70. The proportion of women affected is increasing due to their rise in tobacco use. The symptom that often suggests bladder cancer is the presence of blood in the urine. The need to urinate frequently and burning sensations, without urinary infection or stones, are two of the later signs. The diagnostic exams involve an ultrasound of the urinary tract, a urine analysis, and bladder exploration via cystoscopy (which can be followed by a surgical resection) for diagnosis and sometimes for treatment.